Konditional III

Form

Der 'if' Satz steht im Konditional III im Plusquamperfekt (past perfect) und der Hauptsatz im Konditional Perfekt oder der Konditional Perfekt Verlaufsform.

If -Satz (Bedingung) Hauptsatz (Ergebnis)
If + past perfect perfect conditional oder perfect continuous conditional
If this thing had happened that thing would have happened.

Wie in allen Konditionalsätzen ist die Satzstellung variabel. Die Pronomen und die Satzzeichen werden angeglichen, die Bedeutung bleibt aber dieselbe.

Beispiele
  • If it had rained, you would have gotten wet.
  • You would have gotten wet if it had rained.
  • You would have passed your exam if you had worked harder.
  • If you had worked harder, you would have passed your exam.
  • I would have believed you if you hadn't lied to me before.
  • If you hadn't lied to me before, I would have believed you.

Funktionsweise

Der Konditional III bezieht sich auf eine unmögliche Begebenheit in der Vergangenheit und ihre möglichen Ergebnisse in der Vergangenheit. Diese Sätze sind völlig hypothetisch, das es jetzt für die Begebenheit zu spät ist zu existieren. Im Konditional III herrscht immer eine Art Bedauern. Die Zeit ist in diesen Sätzen die Vergangenheit und die Situation ist hypothetisch.

Beispiele
  • If I had worked harder I would have passed the exam. (But I didn't work hard, and I didn't pass the exam.)
  • If I had known you were coming I would have baked a cake. (But I didn't know and I didn't bake a cake.)
  • I would have been happy if you had called me on my birthday. (But you didn't call me and I am not happy.)

Im Konditional II kann "would" durch ein Modalverb im Hauptsatz ersetzt werden, um einen Grad von Wahrscheinlichkeit, eine Erlaubnis oder eine Empfehlung auszusprechen.

Beispiele
  • If I had worked harder I might have passed the exam.
  • You could have been on time if you had caught the bus.
  • If he called you, you could go.
  • If you bought my school supplies for me, I might be able to go to the park.
Verkürzungen

Sowohl would als auch had können zu 'd verkürzt werden, was verwirrend sein kann, wenn man sich bei der Bildung des Konditional noch unsicher ist. Es gibt zwei Regeln:
1. would steht niemals im if-Satz , taucht 'd im if- Satz auf muss es sich also um das verkürzte had handeln.
2. had steht nie vor have wenn also 'd vor have an einem Pronomen steht, muss es eie Verkürzung von would sein.

Beispiele
  • If I'd known you were in hospital, I'd have visited you.
  • If I had known you were in hospital, I would have visited you.
  • I'd have bought you a present if I'd known it was your birthday.
  • I would have bought you a present if I had known it was your birthday.
  • If you'd given me your e-mail, I'd have written to you.
  • If you had given me your e-mail, I would have written to you.

Das Konditional Perfekt

Das Konditional Perfekt besteht bei allen Verben aus drei Teilen:
would + have + Partizip Perfekt
Have gefolgt vom Partizip Perfekt wird auch in anderen Konstruktionen verwendet. Es heisst dann "perfect infinitive".

Subjekt + would + have + Partizip Perfekt
He would have gone.
They would have stayed.
To Go: Konditional Perfekt
Bejahend Verneinend Frage Negative Frage
I would have gone I wouldn't have gone Would I have gone? Wouldn't I have gone?
You would have gone You wouldn't have gone Would you have gone? Wouldn't you have gone?
He would have gone He wouldn't have gone Would he have gone? Wouldn't he have gone?
She would have gone She wouldn't have gone Would she have gone? Wouldn't she have gone?
We would have gone We wouldn't have gone Would we have gone? Wouldn't we have gone?
They would have gone They wouldn't have gone Would they have gone? Wouldn't they have gone?