Das Passiv

Funktionen des Passiv

Das Passiv beschreibt das Erleben einer Handlung von einer Person oder Sache und nicht die Person oder Sache, die die Handlung ausführt. Mit anderen Worten wird der wichtigste Gegenstand oder die wichtigste Person Satzsubjekt.

Beispiele
  • The passive voice is used frequently. (= we are interested in the passive voice, not in who uses it.)
  • The house was built in 1654. (= we are interested in the house, not in who built it.)
  • The road is being repaired. (= we are interested in the road, not in the people who are doing the repairs.)

Manchmal benutzen wir das Passiv, da nicht wissen, oder nicht sagen wollen, wer eine Handlung ausgeführt hat.

Beispiele
  • I noticed that a window had been left open.
  • Every year thousands of people are killed on our roads.
  • All the cookies have been eaten.
  • My car has been stolen!

Das Passiv wird häufig für formelle Texte verwendet. Im Aktiv kann man sich dahingegen einfacher und klarer ausdrücken.

Passiv Aktiv
A great deal of meaning is conveyed by a few well-chosen words. A few well-chosen words convey a great deal of meaning.
Our planet is wrapped in a mass of gases. A mass of gases wrap around our planet.
Waste materials are disposed of in a variety of ways. The city disposes of waste materials in a variety of ways.

Wenn wir im Passiv sagen, wer oder was handelt, setzt man die Präposition by. Wenn wir wissen, wer eine Handlung ausgeführt hat und uns dies interessiert wechslt man besser ins Aktiv.

Passiv Aktiv
"A Hard Day's Night" was written by the Beatles. The Beatles wrote "A Hard Day's Night".
The movie ET was directed by Spielberg. Spielberg directed the movie ET.
This house was built by my father. My father built this house.

Hierzu mehr unter das Passiv und die Aktiv Entsprechungen für alle Verbzeiten.

Das Passiv bilden

Das Passiv wird im Englischen aus zwei Teilen gebildet:
die passende Form von 'to be' + Partizip Perfekt

Bejahend Verneinend Frage Negative Frage
The house was built in 1899. The house wasn't built in 1899. Was the house built in 1899? Wasn't the house built in 1899?
These houses were built in 1899. These houses weren't built in 1899. Were these houses built in 1899? Weren't these houses built in 1899?
To clean, Passiv
Subjekt + to be (konjugiert) + Partizip Perfekt + Satzrest
Präsens
The house is cleaned every day.
Präsens Verlaufsform (Present continuous)
The house is being cleaned at the moment.
Präteritum (Simple past)
The house was cleaned yesterday.
Präteritum Verlaufsform (Past continuous)
The house was being cleaned last week.
Perfekt (Present perfect)
The house has been cleaned since you left.
Plusquamperfekt (Past perfect)
The house had been cleaned before they arrived.
Futur
The house will be cleaned next week.
Futur Verlaufsform
The house will be being cleaned tomorrow.
Konditional Präsens
The house would be cleaned if they had visitors.
Konditional Perfekt
The house would have been cleaned if it had been dirty.
Inifinitiv
The house must be cleaned before we arrive.
Passiv mit Infinitiven

Der Infinitiv im Passiv steht nach einem Modalverb oder den meisten Verben, auf die ein Infinitiv folgt.

Beispiele
  • You have to be tested on your English grammar.
  • John might be promoted next year.
  • She wants to be invited to the party.
  • I expect to be surprised on my birthday.
  • You may be disappointed.
Passiv mit Gerundium
Beispiele
  • I remember being taught to drive.
  • The children are excited about being taken to the zoo.
  • The children are excited to be taken to the zoo.
  • Most film stars hate being interviewed.
  • Most film stars hate to be interviewed.
  • Poodles like to be pampered.
  • Poodles like being pampered.
Die Verwendung von "to be born"

"To be born" ist Passiv un wird meistens in der Vergangenheit verwandt.

Beispiele
  • I was born in 1976.
  • Where were you born?
  • Around 100 babies are born in this hospital every week.
  • We don't know on exactly which day the baby will be born.

Manchmal wird das Passiv mit to get oder to have anstatt to be gebildet. Hierzu mehr unter Alternativen den Passiv zu bilden.